Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes - FAR Part 25

Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes - FAR Part 25

Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes - FAR Part 25

Peraturan Federal Aviation (FAR), Aturan yang ditetapkan oleh Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) yang mengatur semua kegiatan penerbangan di Amerika Serikat. FAA mengembangkan dan mengadopsi Standar Internasional kelaikan pesawat udara sipil.
Aturan dirancang untuk mempromosikan penerbangan yang aman, melindungi pilot, pramugari, penumpang dan masyarakat umum dari risiko yang tidak perlu. Sejak tahun 1958, aturan ini biasanya telah disebut sebagai "Fars", singkat Federal Peraturan Aviation.


FARs merupakan bagian dari Judul 14 Kode Peraturan Federal (CFR).

Peraturan Aviation (Peraturan Federal Aviation - FAR), Bagian 25.


Berbagai macam kegiatan diatur, seperti

  -  Desain Pesawat
  -  Peengoperasian Pesawat
  -  Parawatan Pesawat
  -  Pelatihan Pilot




FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS

References
[  Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes - FAR Part 25
[  Required Avionics and Instruments for Part 23 and Part 25



Appendices

Appendix J to Part 23 - HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels
Appendix J to Part 23 - HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels


Subpart A – General

Sec. 25.1 - Applicability.
Sec. 25.2 - Special retroactive requirements.
Sec. 25.3 - Special provisions for ETOPS type design approvals.
Sec. 25.5 - Incorporations by reference.


Subpart B – Flight

Sec. 25.21   - Proof of compliance.
Sec. 25.23   - Load distribution limits.
Sec. 25.25   - Weight limits.
Sec. 25.27   - Center of gravity limits.
Sec. 25.29   - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
Sec. 25.31   - Removable ballast.
Sec. 25.33   - Propeller speed and pitch limits.
Sec. 25.101 - General.
Sec. 25.103 - Stall speed.
Sec. 25.105 - Takeoff.
Sec. 25.107 - Takeoff speeds.
Sec. 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.
Sec. 25.111 - Takeoff path.
Sec. 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.
Sec. 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.
Sec. 25.117 - Climb: general.
Sec. 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.
Sec. 25.121 - Climb: One-engine-inoperative.
Sec. 25.123 - En route flight paths.
Sec. 25.125 - Landing.
Sec. 25.143 - General.
Sec. 25.145 - Longitudinal control.
Sec. 25.147 - Directional and lateral control.
Sec. 25.149 - Minimum control speed.
Sec. 25.161 - Trim.
Sec. 25.171 - General.
Sec. 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.
Sec. 25.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.
Sec. 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.
Sec. 25.181 - Dynamic stability.
Sec. 25.201 - Stall demonstration.
Sec. 25.203 - Stall characteristics.
Sec. 25.207 - Stall warning.
Sec. 25.231 - Longitudinal stability and control.
Sec. 25.233 - Directional stability and control.
Sec. 25.235 - Taxiing condition.
Sec. 25.237 - Wind velocities.
Sec. 25.239 - Spray characteristics, control, and stability on water.
Sec. 25.251 - Vibration and buffeting.
Sec. 25.253 - High-speed characteristics.
Sec. 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.


Subpart C – Structure

Sec. 25.301 - Loads.
Sec. 25.303 - Factor of safety.
Sec. 25.305 - Strength and deformation.
Sec. 25.307 - Proof of structure.
Sec. 25.321 - General.
Sec. 25.331 - Symmetric maneuvering conditions.
Sec. 25.333 - Flight maneuvering envelope.
Sec. 25.335 - Design airspeeds.
Sec. 25.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.
Sec. 25.341 - Gust and turbulence loads.
Sec. 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.
Sec. 25.345 - High lift devices.
Sec. 25.349 - Rolling conditions.
Sec. 25.351 - Yaw maneuver conditions.
Sec. 25.361 - Engine torque.
Sec. 25.363 - Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts.
Sec. 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.
Sec. 25.367 - Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure.
Sec. 25.371 - Gyroscopic loads.
Sec. 25.373 - Speed control devices.
Sec. 25.391 - Control surface loads: General.
Sec. 25.393 - Loads parallel to hinge line.
Sec. 25.395 - Control system.
Sec. 25.397 - Control system loads.
Sec. 25.399 - Dual control system.
Sec. 25.405 - Secondary control system.
Sec. 25.407 - Trim tab effects.
Sec. 25.409 - Tabs.
Sec. 25.415 - Ground gust conditions.
Sec. 25.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.
Sec. 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
Sec. 25.457 - Wing flaps.
Sec. 25.459 - Special devices.
Sec. 25.471 - General.
Sec. 25.473 - Landing load conditions and assumptions.
Sec. 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.
Sec. 25.479 - Level landing conditions.
Sec. 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.
Sec. 25.483 - One-gear landing conditions.
Sec. 25.485 - Side load conditions.
Sec. 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.
Sec. 25.489 - Ground handling conditions.
Sec. 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.
Sec. 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.
Sec. 25.495 - Turning.
Sec. 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.
Sec. 25.499 - Nose-wheel yaw and steering.
Sec. 25.503 - Pivoting.
Sec. 25.507 - Reversed braking.
Sec. 25.509 - Towing loads.
Sec. 25.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.
Sec. 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.
Sec. 25.521 - General.
Sec. 25.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.
Sec. 25.525 - Application of loads.
Sec. 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.
Sec. 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.
Sec. 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.
Sec. 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.
Sec. 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.
Sec. 25.537 - Seawing loads.
Sec. 25.561 - General.
Sec. 25.562 - Emergency landing dynamic conditions.
Sec. 25.563 - Structural ditching provisions.
Sec. 25.571 - Damage—tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.
Sec. 25.581 - Lightning protection.


Subpart D – Design and Construction

Sec. 25.601 - General.
Sec. 25.603 - Materials.
Sec. 25.605 - Fabrication methods.
Sec. 25.607 - Fasteners.
Sec. 25.609 - Protection of structure.
Sec. 25.611 - Accessibility provisions.
Sec. 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.
Sec. 25.619 - Special factors.
Sec. 25.621 - Casting factors.
Sec. 25.623 - Bearing factors.
Sec. 25.625 - Fitting factors.
Sec. 25.629 - Aeroelastic stability requirements.
Sec. 25.631 - Bird strike damage.
Sec. 25.651 - Proof of strength.
Sec. 25.655 - Installation.
Sec. 25.657 - Hinges.
Sec. 25.671 - General.
Sec. 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.
Sec. 25.675 - Stops.
Sec. 25.677 - Trim systems.
Sec. 25.679 - Control system gust locks.
Sec. 25.681 - Limit load static tests.
Sec. 25.683 - Operation tests.
Sec. 25.685 - Control system details.
Sec. 25.689 - Cable systems.
Sec. 25.693 - Joints.
Sec. 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.
Sec. 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.
Sec. 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.
Sec. 25.703 - Takeoff warning system.
Sec. 25.721 - General.
Sec. 25.723 - Shock absorption tests.
Sec. 25.725 - [Reserved]
Sec. 25.729 - Retracting mechanism.
Sec. 25.731 - Wheels.
Sec. 25.733 - Tires.
Sec. 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.
Sec. 25.737 - Skis.
Sec. 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.
Sec. 25.753 - Main float design.
Sec. 25.755 - Hulls.
Sec. 25.771 - Pilot compartment.
Sec. 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.
Sec. 25.773 - Pilot compartment view.
Sec. 25.775 - Windshields and windows.
Sec. 25.777 - Cockpit controls.
Sec. 25.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
Sec. 25.781 - Cockpit control knob shape.
Sec. 25.783 - Fuselage doors.
Sec. 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.
Sec. 25.787 - Stowage compartments.
Sec. 25.789 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.
Sec. 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.
Sec. 25.793 - Floor surfaces.
Sec. 25.795 - Security considerations.
Sec. 25.801 - Ditching.
Sec. 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.
Sec. 25.807 - Emergency exits.
Sec. 25.809 - Emergency exit arrangement.
Sec. 25.810 - Emergency egress assist means and escape routes.
Sec. 25.811 - Emergency exit marking.
Sec. 25.812 - Emergency lighting.
Sec. 25.813 - Emergency exit access.
Sec. 25.815 - Width of aisle.
Sec. 25.817 - Maximum number of seats abreast.
Sec. 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).
Sec. 25.820 - Lavatory doors.
Sec. 25.831 - Ventilation.
Sec. 25.832 - Cabin ozone concentration.
Sec. 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.
Sec. 25.841 - Pressurized cabins.
Sec. 25.843 - Tests for pressurized cabins.
Sec. 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.
Sec. 25.853 - Compartment interiors.
Sec. 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.
Sec. 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.
Sec. 25.856 - Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.
Sec. 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.
Sec. 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.
Sec. 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.
Sec. 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.
Sec. 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.
Sec. 25.867 - Fire protection: other components.
Sec. 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.
Sec. 25.871 - Leveling means.
Sec. 25.875 - Reinforcement near propellers.
Sec. 25.899 - Electrical bonding and protection against static electricity.


Subpart E – Powerplant

Sec. 25.901 - Installation.
Sec. 25.903 - Engines.
Sec. 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).
Sec. 25.905 - Propellers.
Sec. 25.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.
Sec. 25.925 - Propeller clearance.
Sec. 25.929 - Propeller deicing.
Sec. 25.933 - Reversing systems.
Sec. 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.
Sec. 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.
Sec. 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.
Sec. 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.
Sec. 25.943 - Negative acceleration.
Sec. 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.
Sec. 25.951 - General.
Sec. 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.
Sec. 25.953 - Fuel system independence.
Sec. 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.
Sec. 25.955 - Fuel flow.
Sec. 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.
Sec. 25.959 - Unusable fuel supply.
Sec. 25.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.
Sec. 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.
Sec. 25.965 - Fuel tank tests.
Sec. 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.
Sec. 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.
Sec. 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.
Sec. 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.
Sec. 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.
Sec. 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.
Sec. 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.
Sec. 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.
Sec. 25.991 - Fuel pumps.
Sec. 25.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.
Sec. 25.994 - Fuel system components.
Sec. 25.995 - Fuel valves.
Sec. 25.997 - Fuel strainer or filter.
Sec. 25.999 - Fuel system drains.
Sec. 25.1001 - Fuel jettisoning system.
Sec. 25.1011 - General.
Sec. 25.1013 - Oil tanks.
Sec. 25.1015 - Oil tank tests.
Sec. 25.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.
Sec. 25.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.
Sec. 25.1021 - Oil system drains.
Sec. 25.1023 - Oil radiators.
Sec. 25.1025 - Oil valves.
Sec. 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.
Sec. 25.1041 - General.
Sec. 25.1043 - Cooling tests.
Sec. 25.1045 - Cooling test procedures.
Sec. 25.1091 - Air induction.
Sec. 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.
Sec. 25.1101 - Carburetor air preheater design.
Sec. 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.
Sec. 25.1105 - Induction system screens.
Sec. 25.1107 - Inter-coolers and after-coolers.
Sec. 25.1121 - General.
Sec. 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.
Sec. 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.
Sec. 25.1127 - Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers.
Sec. 25.1141 - Powerplant controls: general.
Sec. 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.
Sec. 25.1143 - Engine controls.
Sec. 25.1145 - Ignition switches.
Sec. 25.1147 - Mixture controls.
Sec. 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.
Sec. 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.
Sec. 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.
Sec. 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.
Sec. 25.1159 - Supercharger controls.
Sec. 25.1161 - Fuel jettisoning system controls.
Sec. 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.
Sec. 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.
Sec. 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.
Sec. 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.
Sec. 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures
                         containing flammable fluid lines.
Sec. 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.
Sec. 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.
Sec. 25.1187 - Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.
Sec. 25.1189 - Shutoff means.
Sec. 25.1191 - Firewalls.
Sec. 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.
Sec. 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.
Sec. 25.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.
Sec. 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.
Sec. 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.
Sec. 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.
Sec. 25.1203 - Fire detector system.
Sec. 25.1207 - Compliance.


Subpart F – Equipment

Sec. 25.1301 - Function and installation.
Sec. 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.
Sec. 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.
Sec. 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.
Sec. 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.
Sec. 25.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.
Sec. 25.1316 - System lightning protection.
Sec. 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.
Sec. 25.1321 - Arrangement and visibility.
Sec. 25.1322 - Warning, caution, and advisory lights.
Sec. 25.1323 - Airspeed indicating system.
Sec. 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.
Sec. 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.
Sec. 25.1327 - Magnetic direction indicator.
Sec. 25.1329 - Flight guidance system.
Sec. 25.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.
Sec. 25.1333 - Instrument systems.
Sec. 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.
Sec. 25.1351 - General.
Sec. 25.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.
Sec. 25.1355 - Distribution system.
Sec. 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.
Sec. 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.
Sec. 25.1362 - Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.
Sec. 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.
Sec. 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.
Sec. 25.1381 - Instrument lights.
Sec. 25.1383 - Landing lights.
Sec. 25.1385 - Position light system installation.
Sec. 25.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.
Sec. 25.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.
Sec. 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.
Sec. 25.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.
Sec. 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.
Sec. 25.1397 - Color specifications.
Sec. 25.1399 - Riding light.
Sec. 25.1401 - Anticollision light system.
Sec. 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.
Sec. 25.1411 - General.
Sec. 25.1415 - Ditching equipment.
Sec. 25.1419 - Ice protection.
Sec. 25.1421 - Megaphones.
Sec. 25.1423 - Public address system.
Sec. 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.
Sec. 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.
Sec. 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.
Sec. 25.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.
Sec. 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.
Sec. 25.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.
Sec. 25.1443 - Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
Sec. 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.
Sec. 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.
Sec. 25.1449 - Means for determining use of oxygen.
Sec. 25.1450 - Chemical oxygen generators.
Sec. 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.
Sec. 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.
Sec. 25.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.
Sec. 25.1459 - Flight data recorders.
Sec. 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.


Subpart G – Operating Limitations and Information

Sec. 25.1501 - General.
Sec. 25.1503 - Airspeed limitations: general.
Sec. 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
Sec. 25.1507 - Maneuvering speed.
Sec. 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.
Sec. 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.
Sec. 25.1515 - Landing gear speeds.
Sec. 25.1516 - Other speed limitations.
Sec. 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
Sec. 25.1521 - Powerplant limitations.
Sec. 25.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.
Sec. 25.1523 - Minimum flight crew.
Sec. 25.1525 - Kinds of operation.
Sec. 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.
Sec. 25.1529 - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.
Sec. 25.1531 - Maneuvering flight load factors.
Sec. 25.1533 - Additional operating limitations.
Sec. 25.1535 - ETOPS approval.
Sec. 25.1541 - General.
Sec. 25.1543 - Instrument markings: general.
Sec. 25.1545 - Airspeed limitation information.
Sec. 25.1547 - Magnetic direction indicator.
Sec. 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.
Sec. 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.
Sec. 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.
Sec. 25.1555 - Control markings.
Sec. 25.1557 - Miscellaneous markings and placards.
Sec. 25.1561 - Safety equipment.
Sec. 25.1563 - Airspeed placard.
Sec. 25.1581 - General.
Sec. 25.1583 - Operating limitations.
Sec. 25.1585 - Operating procedures.
Sec. 25.1587 - Performance information.


Subpart H – Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS)

Sec. 25.1701 - Definition.
Sec. 25.1703 - Function and installation: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1705 - Systems and functions: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1707 - System separation: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1709 - System safety: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1711 - Component identification: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1715 - Electrical bonding and protection against static electricity: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1719 - Accessibility provisions: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1721 - Protection of EWIS.
Sec. 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1725 - Powerplants: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1727 - Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1729 - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1731 - Powerplant and APU fire detector system: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Sec. 25.1733 - Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.


Appendices

Appendix G  to Part 25 - Continuous Gust Design Criteria
Appendix H  to Part 25 - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix I    to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)
Appendix J   to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation
Appendix K  to Part 25 - Extended Operations (ETOPS)
Appendix L  to Part 25 - HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels
Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means
Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis




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